Heating System

Steam Heating

District steam heating, if available, shall be used if determined to be economical and reliable through a life cycle cost analysis. If steam is furnished to the building, such as under a district heating plan, it should be converted to hot water with a heat exchanger in the mechanical room near the entrance into the building. If steam heating is used, the designer shall investigate the use of district steam condensate for pre-heating of domestic hot water. Steam heating is not permitted inside the building other than conversion of steam-to-hot water in the mechanical room.
Also, the use of steam for HVAC applications shall be limited to the conversion of steam heat to hot water heat and for use in providing humidification. Steam shall not be used as a heating medium for distribution throughout a building to terminal units, air handling units, perimeter heating units, coils, or any other form of heat transfer where steam is converted to a source of heat for use in space comfort control or environmental temperature control.
Steam delivered from any source other than a clean steam generation system shall be prohibited from use in providing humidification. Steam delivered from a central plant, a district steam system, steam boilers, or any equipment where chemicals are delivered into the medium resulting in the final product of steam shall not be used for the purpose of providing humidification to the HVAC system or occupied spaces.

Hot Water Heating Systems

GSA prefers low-temperature hot-water heating systems; 205 kPa (30 psi) working pressure and maximum temperature limitation of 93.3°C (200°F). The use of electric resistance and/or electric boilers as the primary heating source for the building is prohibited. Design and layout of hydronic heating systems shall follow the principles outlined in the latest edition of the ASHRAE Systems and Equipment Handbook.

Temperature and Pressure Drop

Supply temperatures and the corresponding temperature drops for space heating hot water systems must be set to best suit the equipment being served. Total system temperature drop should not exceed 22°C (72°F). The temperature drop for terminal unit heating coils shall be 11°C (52°F). Design water velocity in piping should not exceed 2.5 meters per second (8 feet per second) or design pressure friction loss in piping systems should not exceed 0.4 kPa per meter (4 feet per 100 feet), whichever is larger, and not less than 1.3 meters per second (4 feet per second).

Freeze Protection

Propylene glycol manufactured specifically for HVAC systems shall be used to protect hot water systems from freezing, where extensive runs of piping are exposed to weather, where heating operations are intermittent or where coils are exposed to large volumes of outside air. Freeze protection circulation pump shall be provided along with polypropylene glycol. Heat tracing systems are not acceptable for systems inside the building. Glycol solutions shall not be used directly in boilers, because of corrosion caused by the chemical breakdown of the glycol. The water make-up line for glycol systems shall be provided with an in-line water meter to monitor and maintain the proper percentage of glycol in the system. Provisions shall be made for drain down, storage and re-injection of the glycol into the system.

Radiant Heat

Radiant heating systems (hot water or gas fired) may be overhead or under floor type. They should be considered in lieu of convective or all-air heating systems in areas that experience infiltration loads in excess of two air changes per hour at design heating conditions. Radiant heating systems may also be considered for high bay spaces and loading docks.